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             MUSIC GLOSSARY

Double tonguing:  On flute and brass instruments, the technique of rapidly articulating notes by using the front and the back of the tongue in alternation (t-k-t-k-t-k).

Down beat:  The first beat; given by the conductor with a downward stroke.

Down bow:  In the violin family, drawing the bow downward from its frog.

Du:  "From the," "of the."

Duet:  A piece for two performers.

Duplet:  A group of two notes performed in the time of three of the same kind.

Dynamics:  Varying degrees of loud and soft.

Eighth:  Octave.

Eighth note/rest:  A note/rest half the length of a quarter note and an eighth of the length of a whole note.

Encore:  To repeat a piece or play an additional piece at the end of a performance.

Enharmonic:  A term used to describe notes of the same pitch which have different names, e.g. c and d, f and g.

Espressivo:  Expressively.

Esuberante:  Exuberant.

Fa:  In solmization, the fourth degree of the major scale.

Fanfare:  A prelude or opening, a flourish, usually played by brass instruments.

Fasola:  A system of solmization used in 17th- and 18th-century England and America. Fa, so, and la were given to both c-d-e and f-g-a, with mi used for the seventh degree.

Fermata:  Hold; pause .

Festivo, festoso:  Festive; merry.

Fifth:  The fifth degree of the diatonic scale. Also, the interval formed by a given tone and the fifth tone above or below it, e.g. c up to g, c down to f. Intervals of the fifth may be perfect (corresponding to major), diminished, or augmented.

Finale:  The last movement of a symphony or sonata, or the last selection of an opera.

Fine:  The end.

First ending:  One or more measures which occur at the end of the stanza or stanzas. It is usually indicated:

Fixed do:  The system of solmization in which c is always do.

Flat:  A symbol which lowers the pitch of a note one half step.


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